BACKGROUND: Few and controversial data exist on the outcomes of patients with paradoxical low-flow, low-gradient aortic stenosis (PLFLG-AS) following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). This study aims to better characterize clinical outcomes and predictors of treatment futility in PLFLG-AS patients undergoing TAVR.
METHODS: In this multicenter study, 318 patients with PLFLG-AS undergoing TAVR were categorized according to treatment futility, defined as all-cause mortality, poor functional status (NYHA class III-IV) or deterioration in functional class at 1-year follow-up. Clinical outcomes and the factors associated with treatment futility were assessed.
RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 81.0 ± 8.3 years and 50.3% were women. At 1-year follow-up, 17.6% died and 12.9% had heart failure hospitalization. Residual impaired functional capacity (NYHA ≥ II) was present in 54.4% of patients who were alive at 1-year, and 9.8% remained in NYHA III/IV. The primary endpoint was observed in 103 (32.4%) patients, of which 54% died and 46% had a poor or worsening functional class. Factors independently associated with treatment futility were the presence of atrial fibrillation (AF) (OR:1.79, 95%CI, 1.04-3.10), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR:2.66, 95%CI, 1.50-4.74) and a lower SVi (OR per each decrease in 10 ml/m2:1.89, 95%CI, 1.06-3.45). The risk of treatment futility of patients with AF, COPD and a SVi < 30 ml/m2 was 66.38% (95%CI, 54.29%-78.48%).
CONCLUSION: Close to one-third of patients with PLFLG-AS failed to derive a benefit from TAVR. The presence of AF, COPD and a low SVi were predictors of treatment futility. Being able to identify patients less likely to improve after the procedure may help to guide management and improve outcomes in patients with PLFLG-AS.
Keywords: Low gradient aortic stenosis Paradoxical low-flow Preserved left ventricular ejection fraction Transcatheter aortic valve replacement