INTRODUCTION: Cervicofacial cellulitis (CFC) is one of the most common dermatological infectious emergencies, and related morbidity and mortality are non-negligible.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We describe the case of a 31-year-old male with left parotitis complicated by CFC with worsening over the previous week despite treatment with clindamycin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. A cervicofacial computed tomography (CT) scan showed left internal jugular vein thrombosis (IJVT). Chest imaging showed no pleuropulmonary lesion, and bacteriological samples were negative. The patient received broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy and anticoagulants for 6 weeks. The outcome was quickly favourable.
DISCUSSION: It is essential to perform a cervicofacial contrast-enhanced CT scan for any CFC to map the affected areas, detect the primary infection and screen for loco-regional complications such as IVJT. The occurrence of IJVT in an infectious setting should prompt screening for septic emboli, especially pulmonary emboli, as well as performance of a chest CT scan. The presence of septic emboli associated with a recent ENT infection and of IJVT or Fusobacteriumnecrophorum in blood cultures are indicative of Lemierre's syndrome.
CONCLUSION: IJVT is an uncommon complication of CFC that occurs either alone or as part of Lemierre's syndrome.
Keywords: Cellulite cervico-faciale Cervico-facial cellulitis Internal jugular vein thrombosis Lemierre's syndrome Syndrome de Lemierre Thrombose veineuse jugulaire interne