Hen eggshells are a rich and natural source of calcium and can serve as a biofunctional food ingredient. Enriching the traditional Polish bread spread (sersmażony) with micronized eggshell is an attractive proposition for consumers who require easily available calcium. The present study aimed to evaluate the use of micronized eggshells as a source of bioavailable calcium in bread spread. The study evaluated the effect of selected biocomponents on calcium bioavailability by using an in vitro digestion model. The enrichment of bread spread with eggshell, lysine, vitamin D3, and vitamin K enhanced all examined physicochemical variables except water activity. Enrichment with eggshells increased calcium levels >2.5-fold compared with the control sample. As an ingredient of bread spread, lysine is an important rheological factor. The bioavailability of calcium was higher in samples with lysine and vitamin K compared with samples that contained eggshell alone.
Keywords: bioavailability curd eggshell texture vitamins