BACKGROUND: Glenoid lateralization has been shown to be the most imortant factor in maximizing passive range of motion and shoulder stability while preventing scapular impingement and notching. We aimed to evaluate mid- to long-term functional and radiologic outcomes after bony increased-offset-reverse shoulder arthroplasty (BIO-RSA) using a Grammont-style (medialized) humeral implant.
METHODS: The study included 143 consecutive shoulders (140 patients; mean age, 72 years) treated with a BIO-RSA for rotator cuff deficiency. A cylinder of autologous cancellous bone graft, harvested from the humeral head, was placed between the reamed glenoid surface and baseplate; fixation was achieved using a long central peg (25 mm) and 4 screws. A large baseplate (29 mm) with a small baseplate sphere (36 mm) was used in 77% of cases, and a Grammont-style (medialized) humeral implant with 155° of inclination was used in all cases. All patients underwent clinical and radiographic assessment at a minimum of 5 years after surgery; in addition, 86 cases (60%) underwent computed tomography scan assessment.
RESULTS: At a mean follow-up of 75 months (range, 60-126 months), the survivorship of the BIO-RSA using revision as an endpoint was 96%. No cases of dislocation or humeral loosening were observed. Overall, 118 patients (83%) were either very satisfied (61%) or satisfied (22%). The adjusted Constant score improved from 40% ± 18% to 93% ± 23%, and the Subjective Shoulder Value improved from 31% ± 15% to 77% ± 18% (P < .001). The humeral bone graft incorporated completely in 96% of cases (137 of 143). Severe inferior scapular notching (grade 3 or 4) occurred in 18% (24 of 136). The risk of postoperative notching correlated to a lower body mass index (P < .05), superior glenosphere inclination (P = .02), and high or flush glenosphere positioning (P = .035).
CONCLUSIONS: BIO-RSA is a safe and effective technique to lateralize the glenoid, providing consistent bone graft healing, excellent functional outcomes, a low revision rate, and a high rate of patient satisfaction. Thin patients (with a low body mass index) and glenosphere malposition (with persistent superior inclination and/or insufficient lowering of the baseplate and sphere) are associated with higher risk of scapular notching.Our data confirm the importance of implanting the baseplate with a neutral inclination (reverse shoulder arthroplasty angle < 5°) and with sufficient glenosphere inferior overhang (>5 mm) in preventing scapular notching. The use of a less medialized humeral implant (135° or 145° inclined) and smaller (25-mm) baseplate (when using a small, 36-mm sphere) should allow reduction in the incidence of scapular notching.
Keywords: Reverse shoulder arthroplasty bony increased-offset–reverse shoulder arthroplasty (BIO-RSA) glenoid bone graft glenoid inclination glenoid lateralization scapular notching