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Social and structural determinants of health associated with drug use patterns among female sex workers in Iran: A latent class analysis.
Metadata
JournalInt. J. Drug PolicyNot FoundDate
2020 Jun 03
4 months ago
Type
Journal Article
Volume
2020-Jun-03 / : 102798
Author
Shokoohi M 1, Karamouzian M 2, Dolan K 3, Sharifi H 4, Mirzazadeh A 5
Affiliation
  • 2. HIV/STI Surveillance Research Center, and WHO Collaborating Center for HIV Surveillance, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
  • 3. Program of International Research and Training, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
  • 4. HIV/STI Surveillance Research Center, and WHO Collaborating Center for HIV Surveillance, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
  • 5. HIV/STI Surveillance Research Center, and WHO Collaborating Center for HIV Surveillance, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute for Global Health Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States. Electronic address: [email protected]
Doi
PMIDMESH
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Female sex workers (FSWs) experience adversities regarding social determinants of health (SDH) and behavioural factors including illicit drug use. This study aimed to assess the clustered impact of SDH on illicit drug use among FSWs in Iran.
METHODS: We surveyed 1,347 FSWs in 13 major cities in 2015. Latent class analysis was conducted to identify distinct classes of five measured SDH including low education, unemployment, unstable housing, last-year incarceration and sexual violence. We examined the association of these classes with five illicit drug use patterns using multivariable generalized linear model with Poisson family and log link, and reported adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI).
RESULTS: We identified five SDH classes: Class 1: no SDH adversities; Class 2: mainly unemployment; Class 3: low education and unemployment; Class 4: sexual violence and unemployment; and Class 5: multiple SDH adversities. The prevalence of last-month drug use ranged from 7.0% in Class 1 to 53.3% in Class 5. Compared to FSWs in Class 1, those in Class 2 (aPR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.15, 5.27), Class 3 (aPR: 3.69, 95% CI: 1.62, 8.36), Class 4 (aPR: 4.49, 95% CI: 1.71, 11.78) and Class 5 (aPR: 6.35, 95% CI: 2.42, 16.69) were more likely to report last-month drug use. The same patterns were observed for specific drugs of opium use, crystal methamphetamine use, and heroin-crack use, as well as poly-drug use.
CONCLUSION: Socio-structural determinants are clustered together and elevate the likelihood of illicit drug use among FSWs. Our findings highlighted the significance of assessing and addressing such key determinants of health in drug use harm reduction programs targeting FSWs.
Keywords: Drug use Female sex workers Latent class analysis, Iran Social determinants of health
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Int. J. Drug PolicyThe International journal on drug policy
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