Tuberculous peritonitis is difficult to diagnose due to the disadvantages of ascitic culture and peritoneal biopsy. Although previous reports suggested that very high serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels may reflect the clinical activity of tuberculosis, little is known about the diagnostic utility of serum sIL-2R for tuberculous peritonitis. We describe a case of tuberculous peritonitis with chronic myelogenous leukemia. The abnormally high serum sIL-2R value and negative findings for other possible causes including lymphoma suggested tuberculous peritonitis and we administered anti-tuberculosis treatment before definitive diagnosis. Abnormally high serum sIL-2R levels may contribute to earlier diagnosis of tuberculous peritonitis, along with ruling out other potential differential diagnoses.
Keywords: Ascites Chronic myelogenous leukemia Soluble interleukin-2 receptor Tuberculosis Tuberculous peritonitis