Yellow fever (YF) is a vaccine-preventable disease, but live attenuated YF vaccine (YFV) is contraindicated in immunosuppressed patients due to the risk of life-threatening YFV-associated side effects. This study aimed to evaluate 1. the knowledge of renal transplant recipients (RTRs) about the contraindication and risks of YFV; 2. the prevalence of inadvertent vaccination of RTRs against YF; and 3. the outcome of these patients. A cross-sectional telephone contact study was conducted with 200 RTRs selected from the outpatient clinic of our transplantation unit. There were 116 successful telephone contacts (58%). A total of 11 vaccinated patients were identified: 5 received YFV in the pretransplant period and 6 in the post-transplant period. All patients received the full dose of the vaccine. Among those vaccinated after transplant, only 1 reported a mild adverse event (nausea) after receiving the vaccine. All vaccinated patients who were post-transplant did not know about vaccine contraindications as a result of their clinical condition. Among the unvaccinated patients, this rate was 12.4%. YFV is the main tool for disease prevention and control as there is no specific antiviral treatment for YF. Our results confirm the evidence that transplant recipients tolerate YFV well. However, data are not strong enough to recommend this vaccine in transplant recipients. Counseling RTRs on the contraindications of YFV is important to prevent inadvertent use of this vaccine in this population.