Elevated plasma fibrinogen is associated with tumor progression and poor outcomes in several cancers. However, no studies have demonstrated the prognostic value of hyperfibrinogenemia in the setting of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). We retrospectively reviewed 104 patients who were diagnosed with malignant lymphoma (ML) or multiple myeloma (MM) and underwent ASCT in our institution between 2007 and 2018. The patients included 63 men and 41 women with a median age of 58 years (range, 24-70 years). Forty-seven patients were diagnosed with ML, and 57 patients were diagnosed with MM. The median follow-up period was 59 months. The median pretransplant plasma fibrinogen levels were 336 mg/dL in ML patients and 320 mg/dL in MM patients. The Kaplan-Meier method revealed that patients with pretransplant hyperfibrinogenemia had a significantly shorter 5-year overall survival (OS) than those without hyperfibrinogenemia (5-year OS: 34.3% vs 81.0%, P < .001). Among 27 patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma, patients with pretransplant hyperfibrinogenemia (n = 12) had a significantly shorter OS than those without hyperfibrinogenemia (n = 15) (5-year OS: 40.0% vs 80.2%, P = .006). Among 57 MM patients, there was no significant difference in the 5-year OS between the high-fibrinogen group and the low-fibrinogen group (5-year OS: 77.1% vs 50.4%, P = .17). Our study suggested that pretransplant hyperfibrinogenemia was associated with a poor survival in patients with lymphoma who underwent ASCT. Because our results are based on a small-sized analysis, further large-scale prospective studies are warranted to verify this conclusion.