OBJECTIVE: To develop a silver nanoparticle (AgNP) formulation for incorporation into glass ionomer cements (GICs) which minimises biofilm growth on restoration surfaces.
METHODS: GICs, Fuji IX, Ketac Molar, and Riva Selfcure were modified with 6, 10 and 24 μg per GIC capsule of α-lipoic acid-capped AgNPs. Monoculture biofilms of Streptococcus mutans were cultured (72 h) on GIC specimens (n = 3) and biofilm accumulation was quantified using a viability stain with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Compression strength and flexural strength (CS & FS) were measured according to ISO 9917-1:2007 (n = 8, n = 25). GIC colour was measured at 0, 1, and 14 days following AgNP incorporation using a digital spectrophotometer. Silver release from AgNP-modified GIC specimens was monitored at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.
RESULTS: AgNP-modified Fuji IX demonstrated the greatest reduction in biofilm accumulation, with 10 μg Ag/capsule inhibiting biofilm formation by 99%. Ketac Molar and Riva Selfcure required 24 μg Ag/capsule to achieve 78% biofilm reduction. AgNP-modified GICs demonstrated significantly higher CS and FS than sintered silver-containing GICs, and possessed equivalent or higher strength values when compared to unmodified GICs. The colour shades of AgNP-modified GICs were more comparable to VITA shades of non-modified GICs than were sintered silver-containing GICs. The silver (≥99.6%) remained within the GIC for at least two weeks following incorporation.
SIGNIFICANCE: AgNP-modified GICs exhibited significant antibiofilm activity and retained mechanical properties equivalent or superior to non-modified GICs. AgNP-modified GICs could reduce bacterial colonisation on and around restorations thereby reducing restoration failure caused by secondary caries.
Keywords: Antibacterial Antibiofilm Dental materials Dental plaque Nanocomposite