Through the years, helminths have co-existed with many species. This process has allowed parasites to live within them for long periods and, in some cases, to generate offspring. In particular, this ability has allowed Fasciola hepatica to survive the diverse immunological responses faced within its wide range of hosts. The vast repertoire of molecules that are constantly secreted in large quantities by the parasite, acts directly on several cells of the immune system affecting their antiparasitic capacities. Interestingly, these molecules can direct the host immune response to an anti-inflammatory and regulatory phenotype that assures the survival of the parasite with less harm to the host. Based on these observations, some of the products of F. hepatica, as well as those of other helminths, have been studied, either as a total extract, extracellular vesicles or as purified molecules, to establish and characterize their anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Until now, the results obtained encourage further research directed to discover new helminth-derived alternatives to replace current therapies, which can be useful for people suffering from inflammatory diseases like autoimmunity or allergy processes that affect their life quality. In this review, some of the most studied molecules derived from F. hepatica and their modulating capacities are discussed.
Keywords: Excretory-secretory molecules Fasciola hepatica Helminth Immunoregulation Inflammation Trematode