BACKGROUND: The Fitzgerald classification expresses the extension of hematoma from the ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) and is related to a patient's preoperative status. The objective of this study was to propose a new decision-making method for emergency surgeries, endovascular aortic repair (EVAR), or open repair (OR) for rAAA based on the Fitzgerald classification using preoperative computed tomography images.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multicenter observational study was performed with a questionnaire survey of rAAA from August 2010 to July 2015 in Hokkaido, Japan, and sent to 20 institutions participating in the Hokkaido Society of Aortic Stent Graft. We included 205 patients who could be stratified by the Fitzgerald classification as the subjects of this study. We categorized these patients into Fitzgerald classes I and II (first category, n = 72) and classes III and IV (second category, n = 133). The short-term results of both EVAR and OR cases were examined in the 2 categories.
RESULTS: In the first category, patients in the EVAR group were older than those in the OR group. Nonetheless, the in-hospital mortality rate was lower in the EVAR group than in the OR group (0% vs. 18%; P = 0.019). In the second category, there was no difference in preoperative factors between the groups. The EVAR group showed a higher incidence rate of postoperative abdominal compartment syndrome than the OR group (12% vs. 2%; P = 0.042). The in-hospital mortality rate was comparable between the groups (24% vs. 25%; P = 0.80). Although there were no deaths in the EVAR group without preoperative shock, in-hospital mortality in the EVAR group of the second category with shock was 41% (vs. 28% in the OR group; P = 0.27). Furthermore, mortality in the EVAR group with Fitzgerald class IV was 100% (vs. 29% in the OR group; P = 0.049).
CONCLUSIONS: EVAR is recommended in Fitzgerald class I or II and also in Fitzgerald class III or IV without shock because the results of EVAR were better than those of OR. Because all patients who underwent EVAR died in Fitzgerald class IV, OR would be beneficial in this patient population.