Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic viral disease presenting with fever and hemorrhagic manifestations in humans. After several outbreaks of CCHF being reported from Gujarat since 2011 till 2019 and from Rajasthan in 2014 and 2015, the present study reports the CCHF outbreak which was recorded from five human cases in three districts Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, and Sirohi of Rajasthan state since August 2019 till November 2019. A high percent of positivity was recorded in livestock animal samples for the CCHFV IgG antibody. CCHF virus (CCHFV) positive human blood samples and Hyalomma tick pool samples were sequenced using next-generation sequencing method. Two different M segment genotypes, encoding glycoprotein precursor, were identified from tick pools in the study: first from Asian and second from African lineage. The L gene (polymerase) and the S gene (nucleocapsid) clustered in the Asian lineage. The present study illustrates the existence of two different CCHFV lineages being circulating within the Hyalomma tick pools in the Rajasthan state, India. We also observed 3.56% amino acid changes between the death and the survived case of CCHFV in the M gene. This report also sets an alarm to enhance human, tick and livestock surveillance in other districts of Rajasthan and nearby states of India. Biosafety measures, barrier nursing along with the availability of personal protective equipment and ribavirin drug will always be a mainstay in preventing nosocomial infection for proper case management.
Keywords: African CCHF India Rajasthan Recombinant