Stroma from either normal or PNH-like red cells is capable of inhibiting, to some extent, lysis in the sucrose test and enhancing lysis in the acidified-serum test. The same opposing effects are displayed by the exclusion peaks from Sephadex G-200 obtained from each stroma preparation, suggesting that the same factor could be responsible for both activities. Stromata and peaks also induce lysis of PNH-like cells in unacidified serum, indicating activation of complement through the alternate pathway. This is confirmed by immunoelectrophoretic observation. When serum previously activated through the alternate pathway is used in the sucrose test the amount of lysis is markedly reduced. This would indicate that the classical pathway activation can be controlled by the alternate pathway. The possible clinical significance of these factors in determining the haemolytic crisis in PNH patients is discussed.