After translocation into the vaginal vault while attached to a pedicle consisting of the infundibulo-pelvic ligament, the ovary was found to maintain its function in laboratory primates. In the majority of the baboons the ovulatory pattern returned within a few weeks after the surgical procedure. The only significant complication was a transitory, and self-limited, infection which was evident on inspection and on the biopsy specimens, but caused no clinical symptoms. By comparing the surgical outcome in two primate species, namely Papio Cynocephalus and Macaca Arctoides, it could be deduced that the Homo Sapiens would be a more suitable experimental model than either of the laboratory primates used in this research. Because there are potentially effective methods for reducing the likelihood of postoperative infection in the relocated ovary, the experience gained by this new method suggests the possibility that it could be utilized in the future for the purpose of collecting ova for in vitro fertilization in carefully selected, and otherwise untreatable, cases of female sterility.