The aim of this review was to briefly recapitulate the most important mechanisms involved in ovulation in the Mammals. The rabbit served as a model for the study of reflex ovulation. The triggering of ovulation by coitus was shown to be dependent on the activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary axis by sensory signals of multiple origin. The fundamental aspects of the hormonal and nervous machinery that governs spontaneous ovulation have been envisaged. The timing of LH ovulatory release and the mechanisms of action of this hormone at the ovarian level have been defined. Evidence was given that steroid hormones from ovarian and/or adrenal origin could evoke or modulate ovulatory processes. The structures responsible for both the tonic and clonic secretion of LH in subprimate and in primate mammals have been localized in the hypothalamus. The nervous endocrine mechanisms involving interactions between LHRH, neurotransmitters, prostaglandins and steroid hormones have been elucidated. Short loop feed back effects of pituitary hormones were shown to control LHRH secretion. Several examples were given attesting that the limbic system, the thalamus and the neocortex on one hand, and the environmental factors, on the other hand, were capable of modulating the activity of the hypothalamic structures implicated in the control of either ovulation or estrous rhythm regulation. An unitarian conception of the ovulatory mechanisms, based on the fact that coital-induced ovulation and estrogen-induced ovulation could occur in spontaneous and reflex ovulators respectively, has been proposed.