During the period 1964-73, 286 patients were treated for mandibular fractures. 229 patients (80%) attended the follow-up examination. The length of observation was from 1 to 9 years. The treatment and the follow-up evaluations in the 229 patients are described. Early fracture treatment has been the objective, also in patients who have undergone severe cerebral traumas. Antibiotic prophylaxis was implemented in cases of compound fractures. Preservation of teeth and tooth buds in the line of fracture was attempted. Clinical infection occurred in 0.4% of the patients. At the follow-up examination 1 patient presented with a fracture displacement outside the condylar process. Neither malocclusion nor pseudarthrosis following fracture or after treatment were seen. Permanent sensory disturbances in the innervation area of the mental nerve following fracture occurred in 8%. Radiological examination of the teeth in the line of fracture revealed unnoticed apical bone lesions in 17% of 118 patients. In a further 23% there was a negative response to the vitality test. Follow-up control of mandibular fractures is advised at 12 to 18 months after treatment.