1. Subsequent to the introduction of therapeutically effective psychotropic drugs, there has been a decrease in the resident population in mental hospitals. 2. Since maintenance therapy with neuroleptics and lithium may alleviate and/or prevent relapse in a considerable percentage of schizophrenic and manic depressive patients, there is a gradual increase of these patients in the community. 3. In this paper some of the adverse effects of long-term pharmacotherapy with psychotropic drugs will be presented, and possible negative effects of the increase in fertile marriages among community-based patients will be discussed.